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中国江苏省常州市雪堰工业区雪东路2号 address: No. 2 Xuedong Road, Xueyan Industrial Zone, Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China
和)其可燃物质燃烧后产生的热量的锅炉。 Waste heat boilers are boilers that make use of the sensible heat in exhaust gas, waste material or waste liquid in various industrial processes or ( and ) the heat generated after the combustion of its combustible substances. 或燃气)的联合循环机组中，利用从燃气轮机排出的高温烟气热量的锅炉。 In a fuel ( or gas ) combined cycle unit, a boiler that utilizes the high-temperature flue gas heat emitted from a gas turbine.
I. Working principle of waste heat boiler The design of energy-saving waste heat boiler is a complicated and complicated large-scale project with high reliability and economic requirements. At present, there are widespread dependence on experienced designers, long design cycle and poor knowledge reuse Questions such as whether the rapid development of new products required by customers are related to the survival and development of the enterprise. Waste heat boilers are divided into two types: fire tube and water tube.
Its structure is similar to that of an industrial boiler. Fire tube type waste heat boiler has a large water storage capacity and a small vapor pressure fluctuation under flue gas and steam consumption fluctuations, but its evaporation and steam pressure are both limited by the diameter of the drum and operating conditions. ℃）、管板厚的情况下不宜采用这种锅炉,而宜采用水管余热锅炉。 In addition, due to poor cooling and large temperature stress on the pipe end and tube sheet, such a boiler should not be used in the case of high smoke temperature (above 600 ℃) and tube sheet thickness , and a water tube waste heat boiler should be used instead. The water pipe waste heat boiler has two circulation modes: auxiliary circulation and natural circulation. Waste heat boilers use steam or hot water from the gas or waste gas, waste liquid in the industrial production process, and the heat from the exhaust of certain power machinery. ～ 1250 ℃；燃气轮机和柴油机等动力机械的排气温度为370 ～ 540 ℃。 Waste heat boiler is an important energy-saving equipment. The exhaust temperature of various smelting furnaces and roasting kilns is 650 to 1250 ℃; the exhaust temperature of power machinery such as gas turbines and diesel engines is 370 to 540 ℃. Installing a waste heat boiler to absorb some of the heat in the exhaust gas can significantly improve the utilization rate of the entire system's thermal energy. 倍左右。 For example, after installing a waste heat boiler in a steel rolling heating furnace, the heat utilization rate of the entire system can even be doubled. The temperature of the flue gas entering the waste heat boiler is an important factor that determines the layout of the heating surface of the waste heat boiler. ～ 900 ℃时，锅炉内主要设置对流管束，不设置炉室；但烟尘熔化点低时也有例外，应设置冷却炉室以控制进入对流烟道的入口烟的温度，避免灰渣在对流管排间搭桥。 For example, when the inlet flue gas temperature is 400 to 900 ℃, convection tube bundles are mainly installed in the boiler, and no furnace chamber is provided; however, there are exceptions when the melting point of smoke and dust is low. A cooling furnace chamber should be provided to control the temperature of the smoke entering the convection flue. Avoid ash and bridging between convection tube rows. In the cracking process of chemical production, in order to avoid the re-polymerization of the high-temperature cracking gas, it is necessary to rapidly cool the high-temperature cracking gas to a temperature at which the cracking reaction stops. At this time, the waste heat boiler becomes an indispensable quenching process equipment.
After the high-temperature dust-containing exhaust gas passes through the waste heat boiler, in addition to the decrease in temperature, it can also settle some dust particles, which is beneficial to reducing environmental pollution and selecting a dust collector. In the chemical production process, the exhaust temperature of the waste heat boiler depends on the requirements of the next process. Waste heat boilers for industrial furnaces generally use exhaust fans to discharge exhaust gas to the atmosphere; waste heat boilers used in power machinery and chemical production processes rely on the pressure of the intake air to make it pass through the waste heat boiler and be discharged to the atmosphere or into the next channel. Process device. ℃以上时，其布置形式与一般的工业锅炉无多大区别。 When the inlet flue gas temperature or exhaust gas combustion temperature is above 1100 ℃, the arrangement form is not much different from that of general industrial boilers. 约20米／秒)纵向冲刷管排。 When the high-temperature exhaust gas contains a large amount of accumulating fine ash, the tube rows of the boiler should be arranged vertically, and the flue gas should be flushed longitudinally at a high smoke velocity ( about 20 meters / second ) .
约8米/秒)而均匀，并采取其他防磨措施对于含有二氧化硫(SO2)的腐蚀性高温废气，通常排烟温度应较高，而不采用加热给水的省煤器，目的是提高金属壁温，防止金属受到硫酸腐蚀。 For high-temperature exhaust gas containing corrosive soot, the flow rate should be low ( about 8 m / s ) and uniform, and other anti-wear measures should be taken. For corrosive high-temperature exhaust gas containing sulfur dioxide (SO2) , the exhaust temperature should generally be higher, but not higher. The economizer for heating feed water is used to increase the metal wall temperature and prevent the metal from being corroded by sulfuric acid. Second, the classification of waste heat boilersThe main types of waste heat boilers are: sintering machine waste heat boilers, three waste mixed-fired furnaces and blower waste heat boilers, cement kiln waste heat boilers, steel waste heat boilers, hazardous waste waste heat boilers, waste incineration waste heat boilers, coking waste heat boilers, nonferrous metals Metal smelting waste heat boiler, sulfuric acid waste heat boiler, waste heat boiler industry waste heat boiler, glass kiln waste heat boiler, CDQ waste heat boiler, carbon kiln waste heat boiler, gas steam turbine waste heat boiler, steelmaking waste heat boiler, etc.
一)按余热的性质可分为以下几大类： 1.高温烟气余热：它是常见的一种形式，其特点是产量大、产点集中，连续性强，便于回收和利用，其带走热量占总热量的40~50% ，该余热锅炉回收热量，可用于生产或生活用热及发电。 ( 1 ) According to the nature of waste heat, it can be divided into the following categories: 1. High-temperature flue gas waste heat: it is a common form, which is characterized by large output, concentrated production points, strong continuity, and easy recovery and utilization. The heat taken away accounts for 40-50% of the total heat. The waste heat boiler recovers heat and can be used for production or domestic heat and power generation. 高温炉渣余热：如高炉炉渣、转炉炉渣、电炉炉渣等，该炉渣温度在1000 ℃以上，它带走的热量占总热量的20% 。 2. High-temperature slag waste heat: such as blast furnace slag, converter slag, electric furnace slag, etc. The slag temperature is above 1000 ℃, and the heat it takes away accounts for 20% of the total heat. 高温产品余热：如焦炉焦碳、钢锭钢坯、高温锻件等，它一般温度.很高，含有大量余热。 3. High-temperature product waste heat: such as coke oven coke, steel ingots, high-temperature forgings, etc., it generally has a high temperature . It contains a large amount of waste heat. 可燃废气、废液的余热：如高炉煤气、炼油厂的催化裂化再生废气、造纸厂的黑液等，它们都可以被利用。 4. Combustible waste gas and waste liquid waste heat: such as blast furnace gas, catalytic cracking regeneration waste gas of refinery, black liquor of paper mill, etc., they can all be used. 化学反应余热：如冶金、硫酸、磷酸、化肥、化纤、油漆等工业部门，都产生大量的化学反应余热。 5. Chemical reaction waste heat: such as metallurgical, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, chemical fertilizer, chemical fiber, paint and other industrial sectors, a large amount of chemical reaction waste heat is generated. 冷却介质余热：如工业炉窑的水套等冷却装置排出的大量冷却水，各种汽化冷却装置产出的蒸汽都含有大量的余热，它们都可以被合理利用。 6. Cooling medium waste heat: a large amount of cooling water discharged from cooling devices such as water jackets in industrial furnaces and kiln. The steam produced by various vaporization cooling devices contains a large amount of waste heat, which can be used reasonably. 冷凝水余热：各工业部门生产过程用汽在工业过程后冷凝减小时所具有的物理显热。 7. Condensate waste heat: The physical sensible heat of steam used in the production processes of various industrial sectors when the condensation decreases after the industrial process. 二)由于余热是与其它生产设备及工艺密切相关，故余热利用又具有以下特点： 1.热负荷不稳定，主要有工艺生产过程所决定。 ( 2 ) Since the waste heat is closely related to other production equipment and processes, the utilization of waste heat has the following characteristics: 1. The heat load is unstable, which is mainly determined by the process of production. 烟尘的成分、浓度、粒度差别比较大。 2. The composition, concentration and particle size of soot are quite different. As a result, the heating surface layout of the boiler is affected, and anti-wear, ash blocking and dust removal must be considered. 烟气成分的多样性，使有的烟气具有腐蚀性。 3. The diversity of smoke components makes some smoke corrosive. 、烟尘或炉渣中的各种金属和非金属元素等都可能对余热设备产生低温或高温腐蚀和积灰。 Such as SO2 in flue gas, soot or various metal and non-metal elements in slag, etc. may cause low-temperature or high-temperature corrosion and ash accumulation on waste heat equipment. 受安装物所固有条件的限制。 4. Limited by the inherent conditions of the installation. 有的对锅炉排烟温度的限制，使其满足生产工艺的要求。 If there are restrictions on the elevation of the boiler inlet and outlet , and some restrictions on the exhaust temperature of the boiler, it can meet the requirements of the production process. 三)由于余热烟气性质的不同，故使余热锅炉的种类、结构形式各不相同。 ( 3 ) Due to the different properties of the waste heat flue gas, the types and structural forms of the waste heat boilers are different. According to the structural characteristics, it can be divided into two types: shell and tube waste heat boilers and flue type waste heat boilers.
烟气中含尘量不大于20g/Nm3的余热锅炉为第一类余热锅炉; 2.烟气中含尘量大于20g/Nm3且不大于70g/Nm3的余热锅炉为第二类余热锅炉; 3.烟气中含尘量大于70g/Nm3的余热锅炉为第三类余热锅炉; 4.烟气中含有粘结性烟尘的余热锅炉为第四类余热锅炉; 5.烟气中含有强腐蚀成分或具有有毒烟气的余热锅炉为第五类余热锅炉。 According to the flue gas dust content and flue gas characteristics of the waste heat boiler inlet, it can be divided into the following five categories: 1. Waste heat boilers with dust content of not more than 20g / Nm3 are the first type of waste heat boilers ; 2. Flue gas contains Waste heat boilers with a dust content of more than 20g / Nm3 and no more than 70g / Nm3 are the second type of waste heat boilers ; 3. Waste heat boilers with a dust content of more than 70g / Nm3 are the third type of waste heat boilers ; 4. The flue gas contains The waste heat boiler with cohesive soot is the fourth type of waste heat boiler ; 5. The waste heat boiler with strong corrosive components in the flue gas or has toxic flue gas is the fifth type of waste heat boiler. According to the pressure level of the steam generated by the waste heat boiler, the waste heat boiler currently uses five types of steam-water systems: single pressure, double pressure, double pressure reheating, three pressure, and three pressure reheating.
单压级余热锅炉：余热锅炉只生产一种压力的蒸汽供给汽轮机。 1. Single-pressure stage waste heat boiler: The waste heat boiler produces only one pressure of steam to the steam turbine. 双压或多压级余热锅炉：余热锅炉能生产两种不同压力或多种不同压力的蒸汽供给汽轮机。 2. Dual-pressure or multi-pressure stage waste heat boiler: The waste heat boiler can produce two different pressures or multiple different pressures of steam to the steam turbine. 卧式布置余热锅炉2.立式布置余热锅炉按工质在蒸发受热面中的流动特点(工作原理)分类1.自然循环余热锅炉：烟气是水平方向地流过垂直方向安装的管簇的。 Classification by heating surface layout 1. Horizontal layout of waste heat boilers 2. Vertical layout of waste heat boilers According to the flow characteristics of working fluid in the evaporation heating surface ( working principle ) 1. Natural circulation waste heat boilers: flue gas is horizontally flowing in the ground Through a tube cluster mounted vertically. The density difference between the water vapor mixture in the tube cluster and the cold water in the downcomer is the driving force for maintaining the natural circulation of the vapor mixture in the evaporator. 强制循环余热锅炉：烟气通常总是垂直地流过水平方向布置的管簇的。 2. Forced circulation waste heat boiler: The flue gas always flows vertically through the horizontally arranged tube clusters. A circulating pump is used to ensure a constant circulating flow in the evaporator. 直流余热锅炉：直流余热锅炉靠给水泵的压头将给水一次通过各受热面变成过热蒸汽。 3. DC waste heat boiler: The DC waste heat boiler relies on the head of the feed water pump to feed the water through the heating surfaces into superheated steam once. In the evaporation heating surface, the working fluid flow is realized by the feed pump head. 余热锅炉”通常是没有燃烧器的，如果需要高压高温的蒸汽，可以在“余热锅炉”内装一个附加燃烧器。 Third, the characteristics of the waste heat boiler " Waste heat boiler " usually does not have a burner, if you need high pressure and high temperature steam, you can install an additional burner in the " waste heat boiler " . Through the combustion of fuel, the temperature of the entire flue gas is increased, and high-parameter steam can be generated. ℃，装设附加燃烧器后，可使入口烟气温度达到756 ℃。 For example, when a waste heat boiler is not equipped with a burner, the inlet flue gas temperature is 500 ° C. After the additional burner is installed, the inlet flue gas temperature can reach 756 ° C.
升到10MPa ，蒸汽的温度可以从450 ℃升到510 ℃，蒸汽可以供高温高压汽轮机用，从而增加了电功率输出。 The pressure of steam can be increased from 4MPa to 10MPa , the temperature of steam can be increased from 450 ℃ to 510 ℃, and the steam can be used for high temperature and high pressure steam turbines, thereby increasing the power output. 除非有补燃要求) 。 The waste heat boiler mainly uses exhaust gas as a heat source, so no combustion system is required ( unless there is a supplementary combustion requirement ) . The difference between a waste heat boiler and a conventional boiler: The waste heat boiler uses the existing waste heat or solid sensible heat. The waste heat boiler can generate steam in a multi-pressure state, which improves the heat recovery efficiency. The waste heat boiler has no fuel combustion device. The utilization of waste heat boilers as waste heat must be adapted to the needs of the main process and must not affect the operation of the main process. The layout of the heating surface of the waste heat boiler is diversified. Usually the waste heat boiler is composed of economizer, evaporator, superheater, heat exchange tube group and container such as header and drum, etc. In the steam cycle with reheater, reheater can be added.
在蒸发器中给水相变成为饱和蒸汽;在过热器中饱和蒸汽被加热升温成为过热蒸汽;在再热器中再热蒸汽被加热升温到所设定的再热温度。 The boiler feed water in the economizer completes the preheating task, so that the feed water temperature rises to a level close to the saturation temperature ; the feed water phase in the evaporator becomes saturated steam ; the saturated steam is heated and heated to superheated steam in the superheater ; The reheated steam is heated in the reheater to a set reheat temperature. 、烟气侧参数： 烟气量(标况或工况) 、烟气进口温度、烟气成分、烟气含尘量、烟气侧压力(正压或负压) 、锅炉烟气侧系统阻力2 、锅炉参数： 锅炉额定蒸发量、锅炉额定蒸汽压力、锅炉额定蒸汽温度、锅炉排烟温度3 、其它参数： 主烟气系统所属行业、系统工艺说明、锅炉安装形式、锅炉结构形式、锅炉安装地气象参数或其它特殊要求。 4. Selection of waste heat boilers Requirements for designing waste heat boilers 1. Flue gas side parameters: Flue gas volume ( standard condition or working condition ) , flue gas inlet temperature, flue gas composition, flue gas dust content, flue gas Side pressure ( positive or negative pressure ) , boiler flue gas side system resistance 2 , boiler parameters: boiler rated evaporation, boiler rated steam pressure, boiler rated steam temperature, boiler exhaust temperature 3 , other parameters: The main flue gas system belongs to Industry, system process description, boiler installation form, boiler structure form, meteorological parameters of the boiler installation place or other special requirements.