13771452500 Customer_Hot_Line 13771452500
张先生 linkman: Mr. Zhang
13771452500 linkphone: 13771452500
331077159 QQ: 331077159
中国江苏省常州市雪堰工业区雪东路2号 address: No. 2 Xuedong Road, Xueyan Industrial Zone, Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China
Boiler basics: A boiler is a device that transfers the thermal energy released after the fuel is burned to the water in the container to bring the water to the required temperature (hot water) or steam. 炉” 、 “锅” 、附件仪表及附属设备构成一个完整体，以保证其正常的安全运行。 It is composed of " furnace " , " pot " , accessory instruments and auxiliary equipment to ensure its normal and safe operation. There are many types of boilers, as well as many classification methods. In general, there are the following classifications: 分类 Classification by purpose: industrial boilers and power station boilers. Industrial boilers are mainly used for industrial production and heating. Power station boilers are mainly used to drive steam turbines to generate electricity. 分类 Classification by evaporation: There are small boilers, medium boilers, and large boilers. 吨/时的锅炉称小型锅炉，蒸发量为20-75吨/时的锅炉称中型锅炉，蒸发量大于75吨/时的锅炉称大型锅炉。 Boilers with an evaporation capacity of less than 20 tons / hour are called small boilers, boilers with an evaporation capacity of 20-75 tons / hour are called medium boilers, and boilers with an evaporation capacity of more than 75 tons / hour are called large boilers. ⑶ Classified by pressure: there are low pressure boilers, medium pressure boilers and high pressure boilers. 兆帕的锅炉为高压锅炉。 Boilers with a working pressure not greater than MPa are low pressure boilers, boilers with a working pressure of MPa are medium pressure boilers, and boilers with a working pressure of 8-11 MPa are high pressure boilers. ⑷ Classified by medium: steam boiler , hot water boiler, and steam-water boiler. ℃）或低温水（ 120 ℃以下）的锅炉称热水锅炉，汽水两用锅炉是既产生蒸汽又可用于热水得锅炉。 The boiler outlet medium is a saturated steam or superheated steam boiler into a steam boiler . The outlet medium is high temperature water ( ≥ 120 ℃) or low temperature water (below 120 ℃). The boiler is called hot water boiler. Boiler for hot water. 分类 Classification according to the layout of the combustion chamber: there are internal combustion boilers and external combustion boilers. 分类 Classified according to the fuel used: coal-fired boilers, oil-fired boilers, gas-fired boilers , and coal-fired steam boilers. ⑺ Classified by drum position: vertical boilers and horizontal boilers. ⑻ Classification by boiler type: boiler with shell (fire tube boiler), water tube boiler. 分类 Classification by installation method: There are packaged boilers, (quick-load boilers), and bulk boilers.
、 “炉” ：是由燃烧设备、炉墙、炉拱和钢架等部分组成，使燃料进行燃烧产生灼热烟气的部分。 Boiler composition: Schematic diagram of the structure of a vacuum hot water boiler 1. " Furnace " : It is composed of combustion equipment, furnace wall, furnace arch and steel frame, etc., which makes the fuel burn to generate hot smoke. The flue gas passes through the hearth and each section of the flue to release heat to the heating surface of the boiler, and finally enters the chimney from the tail of the boiler and is discharged. 、 “锅” ：即是锅炉本体部分，它包括锅筒（汽包）、水冷壁管、对流管束、下降管、集箱（联箱）、过热器、省煤器等受压部件，由此而组成的盛装锅水和蒸汽的密闭受压部分。 2. " Pot " : It is the body of the boiler, which includes pressure parts such as drums (drums), water-cooled wall tubes, convection tube bundles, downcomers, headers (headers), superheaters, and economizers. This constitutes a sealed and pressurized portion containing pot water and steam. 、附件仪表：为保证锅炉的正常安全运行，锅炉上需装置一些附件仪表，有安全阀、压力表、水位表（包括双色水位计、高低水位警报器、低地位水位计）、低水位连锁保护装置、温度仪表、超温警报器、流量仪表、排污装置、防爆门、常用阀门以及自动调节装置等。 3. Accessory instruments: In order to ensure the normal and safe operation of the boiler, some accessory instruments need to be installed on the boiler, including safety valves, pressure gauges, water level meters (including two-color water level gauges, high and low water level alarms, low status water level meters), and low water level interlock Protection devices, temperature meters, over-temperature alarms, flow meters, blowdown devices, explosion-proof doors, common valves, and automatic adjustment devices. 、附属设备：附属设备是安装在锅炉本件之外的必备设备，它是供应燃料系统、通风系统、给水系统、除渣除尘系统等装置设备，如球磨机、运煤设备、水泵、水处理装置、鼓风机、引风机、除渣机、除尘器以及吹灰装置等。 4. Ancillary equipment: Ancillary equipment is an indispensable equipment installed outside the boiler. It is a device that supplies fuel systems, ventilation systems, water systems, slag and dust removal systems, such as ball mills, coal transport equipment, water pumps, and water treatment. Devices, blowers, induced draft fans, slag removers, dust collectors and soot blowers.
汽包) 、水冷壁管、对流管束、下降管、集箱(联箱) 、过热器、省煤器等受压部件组成。 The composition of the boiler body: it is a sealed and pressured part containing water and steam in the boiler. Composed of equal pressure parts. 、锅筒：筒的作用是汇集、贮存、净化蒸汽和补给水。 The role of each part of the boiler body: 1. The drum: The role of the drum is to collect, store, purify steam and make up water. The hot water boiler is filled with hot water, while the lower boiler of the steam boiler is filled with hot water. The lower part of the upper boiler is hot water and the upper part is the steam space. The surface of the water is called the water surface. Water level line. 、水冷壁：冷壁是布置在炉膛四周的辐射受热面。 2. Water-cooled wall: The cold wall is a radiant heating surface arranged around the furnace. It is the main heating surface of the boiler. 、对流管束：流管束是锅炉的对流受热面。 3. Convection tube bundle: The convection tube bundle is the convection heating surface of the boiler. Absorbs the heat of high-temperature flue gas. The heat absorption is related to the flue gas flow rate, the arrangement of the pipes, and the flue gas scouring method. 、下降管：要作用是把锅筒里的水输送到下集箱，使受热面管子有足够的循环水量，以保证可靠的运行。 4. Falling pipe: The main function is to transport the water in the drum to the lower header, so that the heated surface pipe has sufficient circulating water to ensure reliable operation. 、集箱：称为联箱，它主要是汇集、分配锅水，保证各受热面管子可靠的供水或汇集各管子的水或汽水混合物，集箱一般不应受辐射热，以免内部水产生汽泡冷却不好，过热烧坏。 5. Header: It is called header. It mainly collects and distributes water in the boiler to ensure the reliable water supply of the heating surface pipes or pool the water or soda-water mixture. The header should generally not be exposed to radiant heat to avoid internal water Bubbles do not cool well and burn out due to overheating. 、过热器：热器是蒸汽锅炉的辅助受热面，它的作用是在压力不变的情况下，从上锅筒中引出饱和蒸汽，再经加热，使饱和蒸汽中的水分蒸发并使蒸汽温度升高，提高蒸汽品质，成为过热蒸汽。 6. Superheater: The heater is the auxiliary heating surface of the steam boiler. Its role is to draw saturated steam from the upper pot under the condition of constant pressure, and then heat it to evaporate the water in the saturated steam and make the steam temperature. Raise, improve steam quality and become superheated steam. 、省煤器：煤器是布置在锅炉尾部烟道内，利用排烟温度的余热来提高给水温度的热交换器，作用是提高给水温度，减少排烟热损失，提高锅炉热效率。 7. Economizer: The coal economizer is a heat exchanger that is arranged in the tail flue of the boiler and uses the waste heat of the exhaust temperature to increase the feedwater temperature. The role is to increase the feedwater temperature, reduce the heat loss of the exhaust, and improve the boiler thermal efficiency. ℃，锅炉排烟温度平均降低2-3 ℃，没升高给水温度6-7 。 Generally speaking, for every 1 ℃ increase in the water temperature at the economizer outlet, the boiler exhaust temperature decreases by an average of 2-3 ℃, and the feed water temperature does not increase by 6-7 . ，一般加装省煤器的锅炉可节约煤5-10% 。 Coal saving of 1% . Generally, a boiler equipped with an economizer can save 5-10% of coal. When the heating boiler is running, the combustible materials in the fuel are mixed with the air delivered to the furnace by the ventilation system to combust at a proper temperature, releasing heat, which is transferred to the boiler water through the heating surfaces, and the temperature of the water continues to rise, causing vaporization. It is saturated steam at the time, and then enters the main steam valve through the steam-water separator for output use. If the steam quality requirements are high. Saturated steam can be put into a superheater and then heated to output superheated steam. For hot water boilers, the temperature of the boiler water is always below the boiling point temperature, and it is connected to the user's heating and heating network for circulation. Boiler water circulation: The boiler body is a closed circuit composed of pressured parts such as a drum, a downcomer, a water-cooled wall tube, a header, and a convection tube bundle. The water or steam-water mixture in the boiler flows continuously in this circuit along a certain route, and the flowing route constitutes a recurring circuit called a circulation circuit. The flow of water in the boiler in the circulation circuit is called boiler water circulation. Due to the different structure of the boiler, the number of circulation is different. Boiler water circulation is divided into natural circulation and forced circulation. Generally, the water circulation of a steam boiler is a natural circulation, and the water circulation of a hot water boiler is mostly a forced circulation. The natural circulation is to use the soda and water mixture in the ascending tube to have a small weight and light weight, and the water in the descending tube to be heavy and heavy, resulting in a pressure difference that causes the balance between the two sections of water column to cause the boiler water to circulate, The greater the severe difference between the two, the greater the pressure difference, the greater the driving force for the water cycle, and the better the cycle. The forced circulation is to force the circulation of boiler water by the driving force of the pump.
Boiler safety accessories: In order to ensure the normal operation of the boiler, the boiler is equipped with pressure gauges, safety valves, water level meters, high and low water level alarms, soda water valves, and sewage valves. Among them, the pressure gauge, safety valve and water level gauge are the basic accessories to ensure the safe operation of the boiler. The three major accessories are called the boiler, and they are also the eyes and ears of the operator for normal operation. 、压力表：力表是锅炉必不可少的安全附件之一，用以测量和表示锅炉汽水系统的工作压力。 1. Pressure gauge: The pressure gauge is one of the essential safety accessories of the boiler, which is used to measure and indicate the working pressure of the boiler soda system. The pressure gauge commonly used in boilers is a spring-type pressure gauge, which has a simple structure, is accurate and reliable, and is easy to install and use. Each boiler must be equipped with a pressure gauge directly connected to the steam space of the drum. Generally, two pressure gauges should be installed in parallel to facilitate mutual verification. The pressure gauge should be calibrated at least once every six months after installation. It must be sealed after calibration and the date of calibration must be indicated. In addition to the pressure gauge installed on the drum, a pressure gauge should also be installed before the economizer outlet and the regulating valve of the water supply pipe. 、安全阀，安全阀是能自动地将锅炉工作压力控制在预定的允许范围之内的安全附件。 2. Safety valve, safety valve is a safety accessory that can automatically control the working pressure of the boiler within a predetermined allowable range. When the boiler pressure exceeds the allowable working pressure, the safety valve will automatically open, which can quickly release enough steam to reduce the boiler pressure. At the same time, an audible alarm is issued to warn the boiler staff to take necessary measures to reduce the boiler pressure. Commonly used safety valves are lever-type safety valves and spring-type safety valves. 、水位表，位表是一种反映液位的测量仪表，用来指示锅炉内水位的高低，可协助司炉人员监视锅炉水位的动态，以便控制锅炉水位在正常范围之内。 3 , water level meter, the level meter is a measuring instrument reflecting the liquid level, used to indicate the level of water in the boiler, can assist the boiler staff to monitor the boiler water level dynamics in order to control the boiler water level within the normal range. In addition to the pressure gauge installed on the drum, a pressure gauge should also be installed before the economizer outlet and the regulating valve of the water supply pipe. 、高低水位警报器是一种当锅炉水位达到最高或最低允许限度时，能自动发出警报信号的装置。 4 , high and low water level alarm is a device that can automatically send out an alarm signal when the boiler water level reaches the maximum or minimum allowable limit. The floating body automatically sends out alarm signals as the boiler water level rises and falls, so as to remind the operator to pay attention to the change of the water level and take effective measures in time to prevent water shortage and full water accidents. Where are the boiler production parameters obtained? See what is written on the boiler nameplate? 、制造厂家； 2 、制造年月； 3 、型号； 4 、燃烧方式； 5 、额定蒸发量； 6 、过热蒸汽压力； 7 、过热蒸汽温度； 8 、额定压力； 9 、给水温度。 1. Manufacturer; 2. Manufacturing date; 3. Model; 4. Combustion method; 5. Rated evaporation; 6. Superheated steam pressure; 7. Superheated steam temperature; 8. Rated pressure; 9. Feedwater temperature.
How to identify the boiler model? 火管炉： 型式代号-水管炉： 燃烧方式： 燃料种类： 蒸发量：锅炉每小时产生的蒸汽数量称为锅炉蒸发量。 Type code - fire tube furnace: Type code - water tube furnace: Combustion method: Fuel type: Evaporation: The amount of steam generated by the boiler per hour is called the boiler evaporation. 表示，单位吨/小时；额定蒸发量：锅炉按额定参数（压力、温度），长期运行时所产生最大蒸发量。 It is usually used in accordance with D to indicate that the unit is ton / hour; Rated evaporation capacity: The boiler has the maximum evaporation capacity in long-term operation according to the rated parameters (pressure, temperature). Note: The evaporation capacity marked on the boiler nameplate is the rated evaporation capacity. 、进行炉内外检查。 Boiler operation: Steam generation process: Boiler startup: Inspection and preparation: 1. Perform internal and external inspections of the furnace. 、检查承压部件的漏泄情况。 2. Check the leakage of pressure-bearing parts. 、进行汽、水系统的检查。 3. Check the steam and water systems. 、对传动机械如风机、水泵、等进行检查和试运，并对连锁装置进行联动试验。 4. Inspection and trial operation of transmission machinery such as fans, pumps, etc., and linkage test of interlocking devices. 、进行燃料系统的准备工作。 5. Prepare the fuel system. 、进除氧热水，水温不超过90 ℃，以避免造成过大的热损失和产生危险热应力。 Water inflow: 1. Heat oxygen and hot water at a temperature not exceeding 90 ℃ to avoid excessive heat loss and dangerous thermal stress. 、进水应缓慢，特别冬季更要注意。 2. Water entering should be slow, especially in winter. 小时。 The recommended duration of water ingress is 1-2 hours. 、进水至汽包水位计的最低水位处即点火水位。 3 , the water level to the lowest level of the drum water level gauge is the ignition water level. Boosting process: The process from the ignition of the boiler until the vapor pressure rises to the working pressure.
What regular work should be done during boiler startup? 、冲洗水位计：通常为两次，第一次是汽包压力（ 0-1表压）就冲洗。 1 , flushing water level gauge: usually twice, the first time is the drum pressure ( 0-1 gauge pressure) to flush. Rinse for the second time before steaming. 、关闭空气门；关闭时间要正确，气压升至表压时进行。 2. Close the air door; the closing time must be correct, and the pressure should be raised when the pressure rises to the gauge pressure. 、对锅炉机组进行全面检查；启动期间2-3次，并汽前还应进行一次。 3. Perform a comprehensive inspection of the boiler unit; 2-3 times during the start-up period and one time before the steam is discharged. Pay special attention to whether the expansion indications of each part are correct. 、定期排污（下部放水）； 5 、热紧螺丝：气压升至3-4表压时。 4 , regular drainage (lower drain); 5 , hot-tightening screws: when the air pressure rises to 3-4 gauge pressure. 、主汽管暖管：气压升至3-5表压时； 7 、冲洗压力表；气压升至3-5表压时冲洗各部汽、水压力表管及阀门。 6. Main steam pipe heating pipe: When the air pressure rises to 3-5 gauge pressure; 7. Flush the pressure gauge; When the air pressure rises to 3-5 gauge pressure, flush the steam and water pressure gauge tubes and valves. 、连续排污； 9 、安全门检查。 8. Continuous drainage; 9. Inspection of safety door. How does the water level change when the water boiler load changes? Under what circumstances will the water level gauge produce a false water level? 、水位计连通管堵塞泄漏； 2 、汽水旋塞堵塞泄漏； 3 、水位计玻璃板上沉积污垢。 1. The water level gauge's communication pipe is blocked and leaked; 2. The soda cock is plugged and leaked; 3. The dirt is deposited on the glass plate of the water level gauge. Water level gauge flushing: Purpose: To clean the water level gauge glass and prevent the water and steam communication pipes from being blocked, so as to prevent the operator from being confused by the false water level phenomenon and causing a boiler water shortage or full water accident. 关水门，冲洗汽管及玻璃板→开水门，关汽门冲洗水管及玻璃板→开汽门，关放水门，恢复水位计运行。 Flushing steps: open the water valve, flush the steam pipe, water pipe and glass pipe → close the water valve, flush the steam pipe and glass plate → open the water valve, close the steam valve and flush the water pipe and glass plate → open the steam valve, close the drain valve, and resume the water level gauge operation. Air volume adjustment: How to determine the amount of air supply? Boiler blowdown: The so-called blowdown is to remove a pin of the boiler water containing a lot of impurities from the boiler and supply it with cleaner feed water to keep the drum water level unchanged.
What are the requirements for the boiler pressure gauge? 、精度：工作压力＜不低于级：工作压力≥2不低于1级；工作压力＞应为1级。 1. Accuracy: working pressure <not lower than level: working pressure ≥ 2 not lower than level 1 ; working pressure> 1 level. 、压力表盘刻度极限值应为工作压力的倍最好选用2倍。 2. The limit value of the pressure dial scale should be twice the working pressure, preferably 2 times. 、压力表盘直径应不少于100毫米。 3. The diameter of the pressure gauge should be not less than 100 mm. 、压力表装用前应做校验，并在刻度上划红线指出工作压力。 4. The pressure gauge should be checked before installation, and the red line should be marked on the scale to indicate the working pressure. Check at least once a year after installation. 、压力表应有存水弯管，钢管内径不应少于10毫米，铜管不少于6毫米锅炉运行中容易发生那些事故和故障？ 5. The pressure gauge should have a water storage elbow. The inner diameter of the steel pipe should not be less than 10 mm. The copper pipe is not less than 6 mm. Which accidents and failures are prone to occur during the operation of the boiler? 、锅炉水位事故和故障：锅炉满水、锅炉缺水，水位不明。 1. Boiler water level accidents and faults: The boiler is full of water, the boiler is short of water, and the water level is unknown. Water level gauge is damaged, soda and water are rising together. 、锅炉承压部件损坏：受热面管子损坏、暴管和承压部件爆炸、汽水管道损坏。 2. Boiler pressure-bearing parts are damaged: The heating surface pipe is damaged, the storm pipe and pressure-bearing parts are exploded, and the steam and water pipes are damaged. 、锅炉燃烧事故和故障：包括炉膛爆炸、结焦、烟道内可燃物再燃烧、燃烧室炉墙及吊旋损坏等。 3. Boiler combustion accidents and failures: including furnace explosion, coking, recombustion of combustible materials in the flue, damage to the furnace wall and hanging screw of the combustion chamber. 、锅炉系统事故和故障：负荷骤减、停电、锅炉及管道水冲击燃烧系统故障等。 4. Boiler system accidents and failures: sudden load reduction, power outages, boiler and pipeline water shock combustion system failures, etc. 、锅炉附属设备故障：引风机故障、空气预热器故障，炉排故障等。 5. Boiler auxiliary equipment failure: induced draft fan failure, air preheater failure, grate failure, etc.
In which cases should the furnace be shut down urgently during operation? 、锅炉缺水，使水位在汽包水位计看不清。 1. The boiler is short of water, making the water level in the drum level gauge unclear. 、锅炉满水：使水位超过汽包水位计的上部可见水位。 2. The boiler is full of water: make the water level exceed the visible level of the upper part of the drum water level gauge. 、炉管爆破，不能保持锅炉正常水位时。 3. When the furnace tube is blasted and the normal water level of the boiler cannot be maintained. 、燃料在燃烧室后的烟道内燃烧，使排烟温度不正常升高时。 4. When the fuel is burned in the flue behind the combustion chamber, which causes the smoke exhaust temperature to rise abnormally. 、所有水位计损坏时。 5. When all water level gauges are damaged. 、锅炉汽水管道爆裂，威胁设备及人身安全时。 6 , when the boiler steam water pipe bursts, threatening equipment and personal safety. 、锅炉燃油管道爆破或着火，威胁设备及人身安全时。 7. When the boiler fuel pipeline explodes or catches fire, threatening equipment and personal safety. Boiler water level accident hazard: Boiler water level accident is one of the vicious accidents of boiler operation. If it is not handled properly, stop it lightly. In other words, it is very harmful. Water shortage: overheating deformation of boiler steel plate and heating surface tube, bulging or cracking. Pipe blasting or boiler explosion. Filled with water and soda water: will deteriorate the quality of steam and increase fuel Consumption will cause salt accumulation on the superheater tube and cause overheating and burnout. Cause water damage to steam pipes. How to judge the boiler water shortage? 、汽包水位低于正常水位，低地水位计指示负值增大2 、水位警报器鸣叫，低水位信号灯明亮。 1. The drum water level is lower than the normal water level, and the negative value of the low ground water level indicator increases. 2. The water level alarm sounds, and the low water level signal light is bright. 、过热蒸汽温度升高。 3. The temperature of superheated steam rises. 、给水流量不正常地小于蒸汽流量（水冷壁管、对流管或省煤器管破裂时则相反）。 4 , the feed water flow is abnormally smaller than the steam flow (the opposite is true when the water-cooled wall pipe, convection pipe or economizer pipe is broken). 、水位计内充满蒸汽，因此水位计发白。 5. The water level gauge is full of steam, so the water level gauge is white. What is soda pop? When the salt content of the boiler water is too high, a lot of foam will be generated on the surface of the drum boiler water. When the boiler has a large load, or the load rises and changes too rapidly, or due to drastic changes in water level and pressure, it will rupture under the impact of the steam escaping from the surface of the boiler water. The boiler water and steam rise together. At this time, the interface between steam and water is not clear. 、炉水质量不符合标准，悬浮物或含盐量过大。 Reasons: 1. The quality of the boiler water does not meet the standards, and the suspended matter or salt content is too large. Wastewater was not discharged as required. 、汽包水位过高，炉水在极限浓度时锅炉负荷骤增。 2. The drum water level is too high, and the boiler load suddenly increases when the boiler water is at the limit concentration. 、给水含油或加药不正常。 3. The water supply contains oil or dosing abnormally.
、运行锅炉应每年进行一次停炉内外部检验，对设备状态和管理较好的锅炉可以每两年进行一次。 Boiler inspection and maintenance: Periodic maintenance: 1. Internal and external inspections of boiler shutdown should be conducted once a year. Boilers with good equipment status and management can be inspected every two years. 、每六年进行一次超压水压试验。 2. An overpressure hydraulic test is performed every six years. 、新装、移装或停止运行一年以上，需要投入或恢复运行时。 Non-scheduled inspection: 1. When newly installed, relocated, or stopped operation for more than one year, it needs to be put into operation or resumed. 、受压元件经重大修理或改造后。 2. After the pressure components have undergone major repairs or alterations. 、根据锅炉运行情况，对设备状态有怀疑必须进行检验时。 3. According to the operation of the boiler, if there is any doubt about the state of the equipment, it must be inspected. What are the key contents of boiler internal and external inspection? 、安全附件是否齐全，并对安全阀作排期校验。 External inspection: 1. Whether the safety accessories are complete and the safety valve is scheduled for verification. 、人孔、手孔以及阀门法兰等是否漏水漏汽，水汽阀门及辅助设备工作是否正常。 2. Whether the manhole, hand hole and valve flange are leaking, whether the water vapor valve and auxiliary equipment are working properly. 、炉墙、炉架是否正常，防爆装置是否完整好用。 3. Whether the furnace wall and furnace frame are normal, and whether the explosion-proof device is complete and easy to use. 、锅炉受压部件的内外表面，特别在开孔、铆缝、焊缝、板边等（裂纹、腐蚀）。 Internal inspection: 1. The internal and external surfaces of the boiler's pressure parts, especially in openings, rivets, welds, plate edges, etc. (cracks, corrosion). 、铆缝是否严密，有无岢性脆化。 2. Whether the riveting seam is tight and whether it is brittle. 、胀口是否严密，管端的受胀部位有无环形裂纹。 3. Whether the swelling is tight and whether there is a ring crack in the swelling part of the pipe end. 、锅炉受压元件有无凹陷、弯曲、鼓包和过热；拉撑有无腐蚀和断裂。 4. Whether the pressure components of the boiler have dents, bends, bulges and overheating; whether the braces are corroded and broken. 、构架有无因砖墙损坏而发生热变形。 5. Whether the frame is thermally deformed due to damage to the brick wall. 、安全附件是否合理可靠，自动控制、信号系统及仪表是否灵敏可靠给水管和排污。 6. Whether the safety accessories are reasonable and reliable, and whether the automatic control, signal system and instruments are sensitive and reliable for water supply pipes and sewage. Whether there is corrosion or cracks at the interface between the tube and the boiler.
Out-of-furnace maintenance: Dissolved oxygen corrosion during the out-of-furnace period is much more severe than that during boiler operation. 、不让空气进入停用锅炉的汽水系统内。 Basic principles of maintenance: 1. Do not allow air to enter the steam and water system of the deactivated boiler. 、保持停用锅炉水汽系统内表面的干燥，相对湿度小于20% 。 2. Keep the inner surface of the boiler's water vapor system dry and the relative humidity should be less than 20% . 、在金属表面造成具有防腐作用的薄膜。 3. Create a thin film with anticorrosive effect on the metal surface. 、使金属表面浸泡在含有除氧剂或其它保护剂的水溶液中。 4. Soak the metal surface in an aqueous solution containing oxygen scavengers or other protective agents. Common protection methods for shutdown: Long: hydrazine preservative, ammonia preservative, lye preservative; trisodium phosphate and sodium nitrite, desiccant preservative, nitrogen and ammonia preservative. Short: keep feed water pressure and steam pressure; release water from hot furnace and dry with residual heat. Oven: Purpose: Dry the moisture in the furnace wall and furnace arch, so as not to heat up the furnace wall and produce cracks. ）按升温曲线进行升温（ 2 ）每天温升不超过（ 50 ℃）（ 20 ℃） （ 3 ）烘炉时间：轻型炉墙4—6天；重型炉墙10—14天。 Methods: ( 1 ) Increase the temperature according to the heating curve. ( 2 ) The daily temperature rise does not exceed ( 50 ℃) ( 20 ℃). ( 3 ) Oven time: 4-6 days for light furnace walls; 10-14 days for heavy furnace walls. ）烘炉温度：（最终烟温）轻型炉墙不超过160 ℃； 重型炉墙不超过220 ℃。 ( 4 ) Oven temperature: (final smoke temperature) light furnace wall does not exceed 160 ℃; heavy furnace wall does not exceed 220 ℃. The purpose of water treatment is to change the boiler water (hard water) to soft water, keep the heating surface inside the boiler clean, and prevent scaling (less scaling), improve boiler efficiency and ensure steam quality, prevent boiler metal wall corrosion, and ensure boiler safety and economy. continue to operate. What is hard water? What is soft water? Water containing more calcium and magnesium salts is called hard water, and water without calcium and magnesium salts is called soft water.
由于含钙、镁盐较多一般都称为硬水。 The water we have seen (river, river, lake, pond, mineral water ) is generally called hard water because it contains more calcium and magnesium salts. 升、 PPM 。 The total concentration of calcium and magnesium ions dissolved in water is called the hardness of the water; units: milligram equivalents / liter, PPM . The greater the total hardness of the feed water, the thicker the scale on the heating surface in the furnace, the greater the danger to the boiler. 、使受热面传热差，排烟温度增高，降低锅炉效率，增加煤耗。 1. Make poor heat transfer on the heating surface, increase the exhaust temperature, reduce boiler efficiency and increase coal consumption. 、影响水循环的正常进行，烧坏管子。 2. Affect the normal progress of the water cycle and burn out the pipes. A base is a compound consisting of metal ions and hydroxide. Such as: hydroxide ion, carbonate ion, bicarbonate ion. The influence of alkalinity in water on the boiler: When the alkalinity of the boiler water is too large, it can cause alkaline corrosion: foaming and co-transpiration of steam and water occur.
Sodium ion exchange treatment: Principle: Hard water uses a sodium ion exchanger to make the cations (calcium, magnesium) in the water and the calcium and magnesium ions in the exchange water absorbed by the exchanger, and the sodium on the exchanger is replaced into the water. Makes the hardness of water greatly reduced to soft water. Ca (HCO3) 2 + 2NaR == CaR2 = 2NaHCO3 CaSO4 + 2NaR == CaR2 + Na2SO4